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Authors Instruction



Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. A standard format is used for articles in which the author presents the research in an orderly and logical manner. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work.

The formats are:


The title of a manuscript should be specific enough to describe the contents of the paper but not so technically to be understand by specialists only. The title should also be understood by the intended audience.
The title should also describes the subject matter of the article: Effect of Smoking on Academic Performance"
Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: Students Who Smoke Get Lower Grades"


1. The person who did the work and wrote the manuscript is generally listed as the first author of a research paper.

2. For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors (co-author).


1. An abstract or summary should be published together with a research article giving the reader a "preview" of what is to come.

 Biological abstracts. They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature and decide which articles they want to read in depth. The abstract should be a less technical than the article itself
2. Abstract should be one paragraph with not more than 100-250 words that summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper.
3. Abbreviations, citations or footnotes should not be use in an abstract, It should be of simple explanation.



The introduction should summarize the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you are interested in the question you asked. One to five paragraphs should be enough with sentences explaining the specific question you ask in carrying out the experiment.


1. The materials and methods should be explicit with enough information to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Reading other articles that have been published in the same field of experiment will intimate you with some idea of what should be included in this section.

2. If you have a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used.

3. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. ("In a preliminary study, I observed the owls for one week, and found that 73 % of their loco motor activity occurred during the night, and so I conducted all subsequent experiments between 11 pm and 6 am.")

4. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain?


1. Results gotten clearly presented in this section by the use graphs and tables if appropriate but also summarize major findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened.

2. Appropriate methods of showing data should be used. Data should not be manipulated.


1. If you present your data in a table or figure, include a title describing what's in the table ("Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results".) For figure, you should also label the x and y axes.

2. Don't use a table or graph for the sake of "fancy". Try to summarize the information in one sentence to make the table or graph necessary.


1. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture?

2. End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant.


This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza.


There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:

1. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places:

Scarlet (1990) thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus (Indigo and Mauve, 1994) and wombat (Magenta et al., 1995).

2. In the References section list citations in alphabetical order.

Indigo AC, Mauve BE (1994). Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science 275: 1213-1214.

Magenta ST, Sepia X, Turquoise U (1995). Wombat genetics. In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q., ed. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 123-145.

Scarlet SL (1990). Isolation of qwerty gene from S. cerevisae. Journal of Unusual Results 36: 26-31.

Martins AC (1999). Isolation of qwerty gene from S. cerevisae. Journal of Unusual Results 36(2): 26-31.





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